Timeframe: 2012 – 2015

Partners: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environmental Geography Group; CNRS-LECA (France); UFZ Leipzig (Germany); Lund University; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Environmental Geography researchers involved: Nynke Schulp, Peter Verburg

Description: CONNECT collected evidence on linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. We developed, applied, and evaluated new methods for mapping the supply and demand of ecosystem services (ES) at multiple scales. CONNECT expanded methods for ES valuation and quantified values of ES to society, and explored policy and governance arrangements on biodiversity and ES.


A systematic comparison of four maps of the ecosystem service erosion protection showed that in half of the European territory, maps show contrasting results (purple).

Mapping and analysis of ES supply and demand showed that people or land uses benefiting from ES and are not always located where ES are supplied. Mapping these matches and mismatches can help guiding land use planning by optimizing the match between supply of services and enabling access to the ES people need.

An analysis of policies on biodiversity and ES using a novel framework that classifies indirect consequences of a policy (rebounds) showed that such indirect and unwanted consequences are a common risk.

Altogether, CONNECT expanded the evidence base for biodiversity and ES policy and provided analyses of the effectiveness of a wide range of local and large-scale policies.


Key publications:

  • V Lehsten, MT Sykes, AV Scott, SG Potts, A Kallimanis, A Mazaris, PH Verburg, CJE Schulp, J Tzanopoulos, I Vogiatzakis, 2015. Disentangling the effects of land use change, climate and CO2 on European habitat types. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 653-663. DOI: 10.1111/geb.12291.
  • Schulp, CJE, W Thuiller, PH Verburg, 2014. Wild food in Europe: a synthesis of knowledge and data of terrestrial wild food as an ecosystem service. Ecological Economics 105: 292-305.
  • Schulp, CJE, B Burkhard, J Maes, J van Vliet, PH Verburg, 2014. Uncertainties in ecosystem service maps: a comparison for the European Union. 9(10): e109643. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109643
  • Schulp, CJE, S Lautenbach, PH Verburg, 2014. Quantifying and mapping ecosystem services: Demand and supply of pollination in the European Union, Ecological Indicators; 36:131–141.
  • Serna-Chavez, HM, CJE Schulp, PM van Bodegom, W Bouten, PH Verburg, MD Davidson, 2014. A quantitative framework for assessing spatial flows of ecosystem services. Ecological Indicators 39:24-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.11.024.
  • Maestre Andrés, S, L Calvet Mir, JCJM van den Bergh, I Ring, PH Verburg, 2012. Ineffective Biodiversity Policy due to Five Rebound Effects. Ecosystem Services 1: 101-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.07.003.